㆗Without Signing Up㆙ The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch Full

▶▶ ★★★★★★


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actor=Bill Cunningham


Rating=7 of 10

Resume=A new feature film documentary about legendary NYTimes photographer Bill Cunningham

release Year=2018

1 hours, 14Min

The times of bill cunningham watch full news. The times of bill cunningham watch full hd. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full article on maxi. Dress suck like a Gay. As my Grand mother says, does not matter which age or time you are. be a good man and wear simple clothes and everything will past. The 80's were the funniest thing ever.


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The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full article on foot. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full length. Defending the draft 2019: Jacksonville Jaguars. The 2017 season was one of the best in franchise history, 2018 the team faced expectations for first time to be a super bowl contender. Week 2 was the key game of the season, vs Patriots at home, the revenge game. The Jaguars beat a patriots team and looked like the contenders out of the AFC for february. The universe though had plans to bring balance on all things, The jags ended the season 5-11 and many would argue it’s one of the more disappointing seasons the Jags have had. The offense was probably the worst offense we’ve seen since the Gabbert years, predictable and putrid, couldn’t run the ball and no pass traveled more than 3 yards. Bortles was so bad that he was cut the first hour he could be cut (1st year after his extension) and signed Nick Foles from the Eagles to replace him. Fournette after a good rookie season regressed BADLY, The OL was murdered by injuries, the TEs were non existent and the WRs couldn't catch a cold on a cold rainy day. The Jags still boasted an elite defense, but what’s the point when the defense is on the field so much since the offense couldn’t stay on the field. This offseason the jags started with multiple cap casualties like Tashaun Gipson, Jermey Parnell and Malik Jackson to have enough caproom to sign Foles and have some for future contracts to upcoming expiring contracts. Some signings that could prove to be good are Chris Conley and Geoff Swaim. Conley might be the most athletic WR that jags have had in a while and Swaim is a great blocking TE (who can catch if need be) which was sorely missed after Marcedes Lewis was cut. The front office for the 2019 needed to hit homeruns on the jags many holes in the roster in order to be able to contend for the AFC south and AFC as a whole, since in the division the Colts and Texans aren’t going anywhere for a long while. But also for their job security, the 2018 offseason (FAs and draft) have been as close to a disaster as possible. The rookies under performed (when an argument can be made that the best rookie out of the class was the 7th round punter… you're in trouble) and the FAs, like Donte Moncrief were horrible. NEEDS entering draft. OL: Depth was non-existent and the Jags cut Parnell, opening a huge hole at RT. My biggest need coming in. TE: Can you name the last time the jags had a productive THE season? All the way back to 2010. WR: A group consisting of players you hope take the next step in DJ Chark, Keelan Cole and Dede Westbrook but also 2 frequently injured players in Chris Conley and Marqise Lee. Not a group that many believe fans look at and say “I am fine with these guys”. DL depth: Having a healthy DL rotation to keep everyone fresh is a key to the defense. The depth took a hit this year with Malik Jackson and Dante Fowler gone. DB depth: Dj Hayden has missed many games this past season and behind him, no one noteworthy. Also adding more DB depth doesn't hurt. Round 1 pick 7, EDGE Josh Allen, Kentucky Why Edge? The jags traded away Dante Fowler in the middle of the season to the Rams for a 3rd round pick in this draft and a 5th round pick for the 2020 draft. Many fans agreed on the value in return for a player that everyone knew wasn’t coming back to the jags since he was an upcoming free agent with no future with the team (especially after declining his 5th year option, multiple off the field issues and a suspension). This caused the jags to be thinner at a key position in defense. Now without Fowler, players like Dewaun Smoot and Lerrent Mcray had to step up but showed next to nothing, If Campbell or Ngakoue are unavailable due to injury, I do not trust either Smoot or Mccray to step up. Without Fowler, the jags couldn’t go with their favorite 2017 lineup of Ngakoue-Campbell-Malik Jackson-Fowler in passing downs. Although not the biggest need on the team, it’s never wrong to keep adding talent to certain position groups, DL being one of them (DL, DBs, OL in my opinion a team should always look to add talent to these position groups, having depth in those groups helps the team as a whole). A good DL can make the jobs easier for the back 7. No blockers for the LBs and more time for the DBs to cover their targets. Within the division, the Colts, titans and Texans primarily aided their offensive lines last offseason and this offseason again the division as a whole improved their OLs. The colts made it harder for teams to bother Luck with a bunch of players last year, the Titans added Rodger Saffold through FA and Nate Davis in the draft to their OL fortifying the inside and the Texans keep adding more and more talent to their OL. The jags defense, that took a small step back this past season, needs to be able to get to opposing QBs like they used to. Also, Calias Campbell isn’t getting any younger and Yannick Ngakoue will want to get paid sooner rather than later. The jags need a backup plan if need be. Why Josh Allen? For the first pick, the Jags were looking at either OL, TE or a trade back scenario to grab more picks. They never envisioned Josh Allen falling to the 7th pick, but with picks like Clelin Ferrell and Daniel Jones made in front of them, he fell right to their laps. This was a classic BPA pick, Josh Allen was seen as a top 5 and even a top 3 talent in this draft by many analysts. Josh Allen was a 3 year starter for kentucky and had great production in his 3 years 31 sacks in 3 years as the starter, 17 in his last year in his stay there. As a senior he was first team all american and first team SEC and AP SEC Defensive player of the year. In a conference littered with top talent in LSU, Alabama, Florida, Ole Miss and Auburn to say the least, he was the best among them. He’s a sack machine that has an eye for the ball, in college he recorded 11 forced fumbles in his college career, leaving the kentucky offense in a more favorable situation. Him alongside Ngakoue who has 10 in the 3 years will make sure to get as many turnovers as possible and helping the jags offense get more favorable possesions in a game as they can. Allen has elite size, speed and incredible first step to be a great EDGE talent in the NFL although he needs to develop some extra rushing moves to diversify his arsenal (he has some, could use more). Allen also possesses the ability to drop back and cover TEs or stay in zone, which the jags could learn from the Vikings on how they implement Anthony Barr, for what many analysts thought Josh Allen compared to. Allen brings in a versatile talent that the jags can exploit, rumors are that the jags will try out some 3-4 packages this next season (Campbell-Dareus/ at DL, at LB, More on Telvin Smith later on). Will he start? Probably? But i wouldn't be shocked if they use him in many positions, He could take over the strongside LB that Leon Jacobs won last season, be a key rotating guy at DE for them or even move Calias Campbell inside permanently and have Allen and Yannick on the outside. Worst case scenario, the jags can’t agree on an extension with Yannick Ngakoue and are forced to either let him go or trade him. Josh allen could come in and take over his spot. This was a pick that could cover up a future hole. Round 2, pick 35: OT Jawaan Taylor, Florida Why OT? The Jags offensive line was, to say the least, offensive to watch. When healthy, they were able to hold their own like in 2017 (could be better in the run game, the two guards were the weakest links) and started to show improvements in 2018... then the injuries happened. Cam Robinson was injured in week 2 vs the pats (one of the sacrifices for the win). Andrew Norwell faced many nick nack injuries early which hurt his play all season long and was shut down, Brandon linder had another season ending injury. That’s the left side, the right side was a complete shit show of terrible. Aj Cann (brought back for some goddamn reason) after his “best training camp ever” was more of the same or even worse, Couldn’t open holes in the run game and got lost on passing downs, he was the only healthy OL in the last few weeks and he didn’t look that much better from the rest of the OL filled with bench players. Parnell started to look more like 2016 and not like 2017, It got to a point in which it was physically impossible to run or scramble to the right side.. He looked slower as the game went by and the jags cut him as a cap casualty, as you can see the Jags OL was awful last season, teams that struggled to get pressure could easily stop the run and get to whomever was the QB. Like mentioned the OL when healthy is fine/above average but improvements need to be made on the right side, especially now that new QB Nick foles is way less mobile than Bortles, he needs more time in the pocket and for the money he’s getting payed, the jags needed to address O-line as much as possible, plus like mentioned before with the Allen pick, adding talent to this group position is never a bad idea. Before the draft the depth chart at RT was Will Richardson (4th rounder last year) and Cedric Ogbuehi (free agent). Although i still have hope for Will Richardson as a tackle prospect, he is still a mystery at what he might become, he didn’t play a snap last season since he was redshirted with an injury, and Ogbuehi…. Just no, after watching him with the Bengals, I don't want Foles to die. I am still hopeful with Richardson but starting the year at RT with a mystery prospect who you don’t know what he will become could spell nightmares. Especially in a division with JJ Watt, Jadeveon Clowney, Derrick Morgan, Harold Landry, Jurrell Casey and Darius Leonard. Why Jawaan Taylor? (NOTEWORTHY: Jags traded up with the raiders for this pick, gave up a 4th round pick and got back a 5th and 7th round picks. More draft capital and also the player they wanted, win for my books) Jawaan Taylor was a player that had a serious argument at going in the 1st round to the jags and 1st round overall, he dropped to the second due to some injury issues from his sophomore year. Jawaan Taylor was the best pure RT in this draft class (Jonah Williams could make an argument). Jawaan commanded the RT spot as a starter for three years in florida (with 4 games at LT) and in 2018 allowed just 1 sack, according to PFF. Jawaan already is good in pass blocking but is better in the run, he will immediately become Fournette’s best friend in the run game since Jawaan long arms and power help him move defenders and able to open holes. In the pass game, the long arms allow him to be able to punch the DEs/OLBs first and get his hands on them before they do. He was able to hold his own against drafted players like Brian Burns and Josh allen. Jawaan Taylors biggest weakness for me is that he will cause some flags for the offense, he had a number of false starts the last few years. Something noteworthy as well is that former All pro LT Joe Thomas praised 2 OTs in this years draft, Cody Ford and Jawaan Taylor, mentioning that they have the athleticism and flexibility to be able to succeed in the NFL. Will he start? Yes, he will be plugged as the starting RT as soon as possible and command the right side, the jags now, hopefully, have their bookend pair of Cam Robinson and Jawaan Taylor for the next 10+ years. Round 3 pick 69 (nice) TE Josh Oliver, San Jose State Why TE? The NFL offenses have changed. Looking at how some recent TEs have impacted their respected offenses like Travis Kelce for the Chiefs, Gronk and Aaron Hernandez for the Pats, OJ Howard Bucs, Zach Ertz Eagles, George Kittle 49ers, Jimmy Graham, Greg Olsen panthers, Kyle Rudolph vikings, Antonio Gates chargers, Delanie Walker titans and Eric Ebron this past year for the Colts. The TE as a position of value for the offense has evolved, Gone are the days that the TEs where pseudo OLs with 1-2 catches a game and for most of the time it was like that, when you have a guy that can be that swiss army knife that will exploit miss matches on defense and also provide a big safe target for your QB. TEs in many cases have become the QBs favorite target. An NFL offense with a TE that isn’t a threat will make the defenses job way easier since that’s one less guy to worry about. The last time the Jags had any offensive production from the TE position was back in 2011 I believe when Marcedes Lewis had 10 TDs. Bortles never looked in the direction of the TEs and defenses never feared them, focusing on covering the short routes he loved. With new OC John Difillipo and QB Nick Foles, both use the TEs more consistently and effectively. As of before the draft the TEs on the team were Geoff Swain (mostly a blocking TE from what i recall), Ben Koyack whos only noteworthy thing in his resume was the game winning TD vs bills in the playoffs 2017 and James O'shaughnessy (Had high hopes for him but was nearly invisible last season). That depth isn’t good enough or talented enough to help Foles. The Jags had no meaningful production from TEs this past season, only scoring 1 TD from that position between 5 TEs. Why Josh Oliver? The second he was drafted, he became the best receiving TE on the roster. Oliver was the main target on his team’s offense and had coverages targeted against him constantly and still produced respectful numbers, leading the team in receptions with 56 and 4 TDs (basically himself had more catches and more TDs than all jags TEs combined). Oliver is a gym rat that works out and tries to improve his body and play, which earned his respects from coaches and players on the team. Coaching staff had full confidence in working all levels, which showed in his crisp route running. Oliver can also be a solid jump ball specialist and can play incredibly well from the slot. Oliver can easily become a mismatch for the offense with his 6’5 250 lbs body with 4. 6 40 speed and crisp route running. Bad news, he still needs a lot of work as a blocker to be able to be used as a 3 down TE. Will he start? I think he will be the main backup to Swaim. But don’t be surprised if the jags pull out 12 personnel plays with Oliver as the 2nd TE alongside Swaim. In obvious passing plays, Oliver will most likely be the TE on the field. Don’t be surprised if he starts or gets more reps mid to late in the season. Wouldn’t be surprised with Oliver having a 350-450 yard season with 2-3 TDs. Round 3 pick 98: LB Quincy Williams, Murray State Why LB? Both starting LBs had off years in 2018. Myles Jack struggled to get the defense organized (watch the Colts and Cowboys games, awful) in the middle and Telvin played extremely poorly and also he will miss 2019 (get better bro, mental health is no joke). That leaves Myles Jack as our main LB but behind Myles Jack, the jags are pretty thin at LB. Behind him primarily are Blair Brown, Donald Payne and Leon Jacobs (Jags just cut Brown and Payne). The jags did sign Jake Ryan from the packers, a guy that can command the middle and stop the run pretty well but a bad coverage LB. This means Myles Jack can move outside again, to his more comfortable position like he was in 2017 and had much better success. With rumors about the jags trying out some 3-4 fronts, adding depth to the LB corps was needed in order to be able to play more fronts and also to possibly find someone to replace Telvin. Why Quincy Williams? This was the pick that was given via the Fowler trade, This was one of the few times i’ve ever seen the draft coverage crew have no idea who the player drafted was. Quincy Williams is about the same size as Telvin Smith at around 6 feet and 220 lbs (the murray state page for quincy lists him at 239 lbs but lists him as 220 lbs). Quincy Williams’s stock started to rise about 4-5 weeks before the draft and his stock rose high. According in to 49ers GM John Lynch and Kyle Shanahan, they lauded Williams and said something along the lines[ “he was drafted at the right time”] and also Jags GM Dave Caldwell said that Williams was one of the last “starter potential/worthy LBs in this draft”, So GMs and cout teams around the NFL knew of Quincy Williams and thought highly of him enough to possibly see him as a mid round pick. The jaguars could’ve been scared of Quincy not making it to them in the 5th round (their next pick), so they took him in the late 3rd just to make sure. Watching some highlights of him that he himself posted on youtube, he tackles extremely well, is really fast to the ball and good at coverage. Something to note as well, his head coach at Murray state also talked about williams and gave a passionate defense and approval of him. For me, how the coach talks about a player is key about what they feel of him, i. e when Jadeveon Clowney was coming out and the HC at the time said something along the lines of “yeah he isn’t the hardest worker” that was a huge red flag for me. The murray state HC sounded like he would run through a brick wall for Quincy Williams. Will he start? Probably. After Telvins breaking news, the starters look to be Myles Jack, Jake Ryan, and possibly a competition between Leon Jacobs, Quincy Williams and UDFA Joe Giles-Harris. By the looks of it I wouldn't be surprised he wins and starts week 1. Round 5 pick 140: Ryquell Armstead RB, Temple Why RB? The RB position as a whole for the jags was a huge disappointment. Fournette, looking to build upon a good rookie year, took 2 steps back in his sophomore slump. Fournette came in overweight and got injured in the 1st game vs NYG and took longer than needed to heal due to him missing rehab appointments, and when he came back he got into a fight and got suspended for a 2nd time in his career. Reports in the off-season came out that Fournette was a locker room cancer, the last game of the season looked mentally checked out and didn’t seem interested (I was at the game, he was sitting down the whole game and never stood up, it was national worthy news after Coughlin called him out), sleeping on meetings, not memorizing the playbook (rumors are Bortles had to tell Fournette what to do in everyplay), questioning his work ethic and love for the game (still isn’t consistent in the passing game and still a poor pass blocker), skipping team activities. It got so bad, many fans believed Fournette was a goner since he lost the guaranteed money on his deal either he was going to be traded for cheap or cut. Apparently Coughlin, Caldwell and Fournette had a meeting and cleared the air and improved their relationship somewhat. Fournette still needs to have a great year, on and off the field, or his future with the team will be jeopardized ( he already got arrested for a traffic violation this summer, starting the offseason very well). His backups TJ Yeldon and Corey Grant were not better. Grant after a good postseason run, proving he can be a secret weapon for the offense and the fans hyping his coming out party this season (I even said that he would have 500 yards receiving AND rushing).. He Got injured and still is unsigned at this moment. TJ Yeldon although had some nice games here and there, mentally checked out 4 games before the season ended and requested to not play so it couldn't hurt his FA value, also Yeldon does not possess elite to very good aspects to his game (Hes above average in most but nothing special). A mid season trade to acquire Carlos Hyde didn't help as well, Hyde did next to nothing with the jags this past season. Both Alfred Blue and Benny cunningham were brought in to be backups for Fournette, but the Jags needed to bring in someone who can bring some fear on Fournette. Why Ryquell Armstead? This draft had many RB prospects fall a round or two from many projected them to be drafted, making them some good value picks. Armstead was one of them, who was a projected 4th rounder. My favorite qualities of Ryquell Armstead is his toughness, effort and his feet. For the Temple university Owls (an underrated prospect school, all their prospects have great work ethic and toughness), wearing a single digit number is one of the biggest signs of respect a player can earn (argument can be made, equal to being named captain). Voted by their peers, the numbers are given to the toughest members of the team, Ryquell Armstead was one of those, alongside his college teammate Rock ya sin who went to the Colts (Armstead is the third player in history to rush for 100 yds and get a sack in the same game). Armstead doesn't give a fuck about defenders and will try to hit them first and gain every inch he physically can get, making him an excellent short yardage back. His feet move quick enough (and with 4. 45 speed) could be a toss/off the tackle runner, even though he’s more of a north south runner. He possesses a nice cut back and with his strong legs, when tackled are still pushing forward. This selection, in a way, was a wake up call for Leonard Fournette. The jags draft a RB who is almost copy paste skill wise to him (shares weakness in the passing game, but also a tendency to hit the hole way to early, half a second more patience could yield better results). Although an argument could be made that Armstead seems to put more of an effort on the field, has a better work ethic and a healthier body (Fournette missed more time in college and has missed many games in the pros, in 3 years Armstead missed 4 games and none by a serious injury). Fournette could be on his last hurrah to prove to the front office that he cares about the opportunity he has in playing in the league and show improvement in his play and in his maturity, he is still an elite prospect due to his pure athleticism but needs to show that he was worth a 4th overall selection. Will he start? No, he will be the main backup, but don't be surprised if Armstead gets reps to give Fournette some rest or even over Fournette in games. Round 6, pick 178: QB Gardner Minshew Wash. state Why QB? Probably the only position on the offense more disappointing than the RBs were the QBs. Blake Bortles after what many seemed to say took a step into the right direction is his development the 1st year without Gus Bradley, played fairly well (though he had his Bort games in 2017) and got the jags to the AFC championship game. For 2018 many expected for Bortles to rise up, take another step and prove his 3rd overall selection… but it didn’t happen. In fact he took 5 steps back, showing more of the elongated throwing motion, he was scared again in the pocket and didn't want to throw the ball further than 5 yards. Bortles was benched with Cody Kessler who didn't fare well aswell. At the beginning of the offseason Bortles was cut and made way for new QB Nick Foles (many didn’t like the Contract but after how the QBs played, it’s understandable). Foles will provide more stability in the position and better smarter play. But in the case that Foles gets hurt, the jags backups are Cody Kessler (got cut) and 2nd year player Tanner Lee. Tanner Lee was probably the worst jags player from last years pre season games. They needed someone who is better and safer. Who can win games if need be, someone with charisma. Someone… with a stache. Why Gardner Minshew? THE STACHE IS GOING TO DUVAL. Back to reality, Gardner Minshew last year is nothing to scoff at stat-wise. Minshew was the PAC 12 offensive player of the year after leading the nation in most of the passing statistics, completion, attempts, yards/game and yards, also top 5 in TDs and completion%. Minshew might not have the 6’3 height and weight most scouts want in there QB but he does have the intangibles and accuracy to be a competent/good QB, he takes full command and control of the offense and his teammates would run through a steel wall for him. Minshew became a folk hero in washington state with his play, leadership and energy on the field. Minshew is constantly incredibly accurate with the ball, placing it in the right spot and makes great read progressions and has a really good pump fake to startle defenders. Arm strength is his main doubt coming out and also Mike Leach’s system in college, which allowed for some easy throws and his biggest game vs Washington, which was the closest thing to an NFL defense and he had an awful game. Basically Minshew already has a better release, ball placement accuracy and football IQ than Blake Bortles (Bortles has the size and maybe arm strength). Ok a bit of a diatribe, I actually don’t care that much for the size of players any more, I used to. I wanted only 6´4 QBs, 6’3 250 lbs LBs, 330 lbs DTs, etc. But in today's game that you see players with different skill sets playing well in the NFL, an example with QBs with Drew Brees, Michael Vick, Russell Wilson, Baker Mayfield and Lamar Jackson succeeding in different ways, another example, DT guys like John Randle and Aaron Donald are undersized but effective as hell. Still a 6’4 cannon arm QB will get more attention but i've opened my mind for other options. I've seen my fair share of “HE HAS THE PERFECT BODY AND SIZE FOR THIS POSITION, SAFEST PICK IN THE DRAFT” guys, they come in and down right fail, im watching you Luke Joeckel (TLDR: 2013, 2nd overall pick, safest pick in the draft for being an athletic technician… there were moments i doubted he knew he could use his hands and got down right embarrassed). Will he start? No but will instantly be the main backup QB behind Nick Foles. Round 7 pick 235: DT Dontavius Russell Auburn Why DT? Marcell Dareus’ contract is getting very expensive. He could be the next cap cut target for next offseason. That leaves Taven Bryan and Abry Jones as the only DTs for 2020. They need more depth in this position to keep everyone with fresh legs. Sure Calais Campbell can move inside, but another body to keep everyone upright and healthy will help the health and play of the defense. The Jags need more depth for this year, maybe a starter for the next draft. Why Dontavius? A former top 150 recruit and 4 year starter in Auburn, had a bad start for the tigers but stepped up for his senior and junior years to being a key contributor. He has the strength and size with his 320 lbs body to at least eat blockers leaving the other DT and LBs free to gobble the running play. He has the lower body strength to hold his own to hold blockers at bay. If Russel can play with better pad level, meaning he doesn’t play too upright, he will have more control in his balance and have a stronger push with his rush and run stopping which will help him to consistently beat his blockers more easily. When he showed in college when he easily could beat his blocker and completely destroy the pocket from the middle. He wont be used in obvious passing plays due to limited pass rushing moves/technique. The DL coach needs to make Dontavius play with a lower pad level, allowing him to have more leverage, burst off the line and power which will help his overall play. He has the athleticism a DT needs, he needs the coaching to molde him. Will he start? No, he will be either inactive some games or even play around 10 snaps a game. To give Dareus, Jones and Bryan some rest. Notable UDFAs: IMO full list here Joe Giles-Harris LB Duke: I don’t know how he didn’t get drafted, had a 5th round grade on him. He might have below average athleticism, according to scouts, but he makes up for with instincts/play recognition. Which showed in his production Bunchy Stallings IOL Kentucky: Played Center and Guard in college, First team All SEC honors as a senior. Not the most athletic but shows effort and technique to maybe hold his own in the NFL, especially in the run game. Needs to work in pass protection. One of the main reasons Benny Snell had great production. OVERALL GRADE: A-, addressed biggest needs but, for my taste, I would’ve added an interior OL depth did trade away their extra 7th round pick and their 4th rounder. Maybe an IOL would’ve been added with both or one of those picks, but at the same time I wouldn’t change any of these picks, especially Quincy Williams (probably the pick that was questioned the most by r/jaguars) after hearing Telvin Smith’s news. At the moment looks like a nice haul for the jags. Now this class needs to prove their worth on the field. FUTURE NEEDS: With 9 picks in the next draft (an extra 5th and 6th), the jags could have the capital to move up to select talent in next year's draft. But what positions? RB: If Fournette doesn’t pan out and the team gives up on him, the jags will need to get someone who can take over. Next draft class has a stacked RB class headed by Clemson's RB Travis Etienne WR: One of the bigger needs that wasn’t addressed in the draft. They seem to trust a WR core of Marqise Lee, DJ Chark, Chris Conley, Keelan Cole and Dede Westbrook. Next years class of WRs being one of the best since 2014 with guys like Jerry Judy from Alabama, Tee Higgins from Clemson and Cede Lamb from Oklahoma. The Jags could dip into grabbing one or two of them like they did in 2014. IOL: Brandon Linder has missed 2 full seasons (when healthy he’s a top 5 Center in this league… fight me, but he does miss at least between 3-5 games a year), I don’t like AJ Cann and the depth behind them is suspect to say the least. Need to add depth/future starters ASAP DL depth: Like mentioned, Dareus could be a serious cap casualty next season if he doesnt re-tool his deal. Will need another starter or depth for next year. **LB:**Telvin Smith might not play another snap for the jags ever again, Jack’s contract is up soon. Adding depth and starters. DBs: AJ Bouye could be a cap casualty and fans have doubts for Jarrod Wilson at FS. More DBs could be needed for next season.

The times of bill cunningham watch full fight. The times of bill cunningham watch full episodes. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full article on top. RiP Mr Cunningham! So humble and so free... Great favourite. The times of bill cunningham watch full movie online free. The times of bill cunningham watch full movie online. This is a clip from a movie Homme Less which is a very interesting case study about maintaining dignity and separating your lifestyle from your financial situation. Mark is an interesting person, my main takeway from the movie was reflecting upon myself as a creative professional and how could I maintain my integrity if things don't work out as well as I expect them to. Go watch the movie. Narrated by Sarah Jessica Parker, The Times of Bill Cunningham features incredible photographs chosen from over 3 million previously unpublicized images and documents from iconic street photographer and fashion historian Bill Cunningham. Told in Cunningham’s own words from a recently unearthed 1994 interview, the photographer chronicles, in his customarily cheerful and plainspoken manner, moonlighting as a milliner in France during the Korean War, his unique relationship with First Lady Jackie Kennedy, his four decades at The New York Times and his democratic view of fashion and society. reactions “A snapshot of a life that leaves you grateful for having encountered it. ” Owen Gleiberman, Variety “The real strength of Bozek’s film is how much of Cunningham’s own voice it gives us. ” David Rooney, The Hollywood Reporter awards & festivals New York Film Festival - Official Selection 2018 Aspen FilmFest - 2019 Audience Award Winner Berkshire International Film Festival - Official Selection 2018.

The times of bill cunningham watch full form. @Chivalryaintdead - Netflix. The times of bill cunningham watch full free. The times of bill cunningham watch full game. The times of bill cunningham watch full movie. She was so much more game than other people who've done this. Mario Testino was a terrible photographer. Does anyone know what the interview of Bill from in the 80's is from? I'd love to be able to watch it in it's entirety.

The times of bill cunningham watch full episode. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full review. Confederate Political Atlas Getting a Sense of the Old South 2042 Edition Though the South has reached near parity between the two parties after a nearly 3 decades of unified Conservative control; however, the 2042 was ultimately a disappointment for Social Labor, who failed to capture the Old Plantation as President Heather Moore, originally hailing from Alabama, was able to triumph to win a third term in office; if she completes this term, which all indications say she will, Moore will have served for 18 years as President of the Confederacy, and will have the option to run for a fourth term, if she so chooses - the CSA does not have a set of term limits on the Presidency. While Foxx attempted to make the election a referendum on the Conservative Party, which had suffered from numerous hits to their popularity and shifting voter demographics, along with a set of scandals which had accrued after such long reign, Moore was able to leverage both her experience and age to cast herself as a steady hand in a time of relative geopolitical turmoil, utilizing strong economic growth and territorial expansion to push a narrative of continual progress, mirrored by her campaign slogan - 'Proven Results, Steady Hand, Strong Vision. ' In casting herself as a go-getter, driven and relatively young leader, Moore successfully contrasted herself with Anthony Foxx, former governor of North Carolina, who became defined by his age (70 years old by the time of the election) after he unexpectedly emerged from a brokered Social Labor convention over the apparent front-runners of the race; numerous Laborites believed Georgia Congresswoman Erica Thomas to be a much stronger choice, and Foxx's pick of former Alabama Governor Neil Rafferty decreased Labor appeal among women and especially women of color, an increasingly key voter demographic in Confederate politics. While Foxx attempted to mimic the same suave, handsome and energetic version of himself who captured North Carolina's governor mansion nearly 20 years ago, his age showed on the campaign trail after a poor debate performance, numerous gaffes and missteps on the trail and a bizarre lack of outreach to Spanish-speaking voters, with Foxx ultimately being 'memed' as a senile elderly 'Xoomer' who had fallen behind on the times. However, Foxx gave Moore the first truly competitive election of her life, bringing her under 60% of the vote and only falling behind by a few million votes. Notably, though Foxx lost his home state, he was able to capture Georgia for Social Labor, proving it's viability as part of the SL 'core, ' previously confined to the Caribbean states of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. Foxx performed well among African American males and some younger voters; however, he fell behind in nearly every other demographic, and fell well short of breaking into Moore's sizable edge among women and suburban voters. Foxx also performed admirably among the brand new Cajun French voter bloc, freshly added to the country through the accession of Louisiana; his French outreach was well-organized and though he fell short of capturing the state of Louisiana itself, he won the majority of Cajun voters and fell short in the state only thanks to his relatively poor showing among whites. His French outreach efforts also helped float his totals in Alabama and Mississippi thanks to the quick growth of French Southrons in the Gulf Coast Region. Tennessee was not as beneficial to Labor as Louisiana was, however; though the cities of Nashville and Memphis helped Labor greatly, it appears TN will not remain as competitive as Louisiana may emerge to be. Social Labor saw far more success in it's efforts to capture Congress for the first time, managing to flip or pickup 5 Congressional seats and breaking the 6-year-long tie which has gridlocked the Confederate Congress since the 2036 General Election. Social Labor was able to fundraise immense amounts of money in each state and managed to put quite literally every state's seat in play, defeating 4 Conservative incumbents and losing only one incumbent of their own. Most notably, strong French outreach from the Foxx campaign helped Labor grab 3 Gulf Coast seats, including one open seat in Louisiana; Alabama's new-found swing-state status came out in full force, and Labor gains in Mississippi and South Carolina showed the party's increasing strength among rural whites, especially thanks to left-leaning populist candidates and a shift away from unpopular social issues. Even Foxx didn't fully advocate national protections for abortion or gay marriage, helping other Laborites on his coattails win states previously untouched by the party. The sole black mark on Labor performance was the loss of a seat in North Carolina; however, the incumbent was more outspoken than most on left social issues, and her defeat may push the party further from social liberalism. Weak Conservative performance in Tennessee and Mississippi especially can be at least partially attributed to overconfidence; both races saw airwaves essentially dominated by Social Labor without much response from the Conservatives. Joe Cunningham, a one-time rising star in the Social Labor party, was able to recapture a South Carolina seat, and his name is already being floated for the 48' Presidential election, though Party committees are already beginning to fundraise and recruit for the 45' Midterms. After more than 6 years holding the post, Congressman Ross Spano (CC-FL) lost the gavel; Speaker Al Williams (SL-VI) will be the first non-Conservative Speaker of the Congress, and the Caucus has already prepared a shortlist of legislative goals which they will attempt to pressure President Moore to sign onto, including expanded healthcare access and more affordable college, alongside a slew of labor and regulatory reform bills. Congressional Makeup as of the 2042 elections - Map State | Class | MoC | Party | - | - | - Alabama | 1 | Alfred Namer | SL | 2 | David Abraham | SL Mississippi | 1 | Cindy Craven | CC | 2 | Alicia Fitzpatrick | SL Georgia | 1 | Jackson Perth | SL | 2 | Filip DeSabato | SL South Carolina | 1 | Brad Hutto | CC | 2 | Joe Cunningham | SL North Carolina | 1 | Joeseph Acosta | CC | 2 | Alex Key | CC Florida | 1 | Nikki Fried | SL | 2 | Ross Spano | CC ( CC Leader) Puerto Rico | 1 | Manuel Lugo | SL | 2 | Roberto Castro | SL Virgin Islands | 1 | Jessica FitzGerald | SL | 2 | Al Williams | SL ( Speaker) Tennessee | 1 | James Blackstone | SL | 2 | Kyle Greenburg | CC Louisiana | 1 | Larry Hugo | CC | 2 | Antoine Emile | SL Gubernatorial & State Legislative - Wikibox Both the Social Labor and Conservative Gubernatorial Associations, headed by John Donalds (NC-SL) and Ashley Moody (FL-CC) walked away relatively happy in the year's Gubernatorial elections, which saw no flips and one of each of the newly admitted states going to one party; Laborite strength among French Southrons was reinforced by a gubernatorial pickup in Louisiana by Joe Long, of the illustrious Long Family, while Tennessee went safely to Jesse Beck, a longtime figure in New American reform movements. North Carolina was the closest race of the cycle and one of the most highly watched, but the Conservative pick in the race (Albert MacDonald, a former right-wing radio show host) ended up disappointing expectations and John Donalds cruised to reelection. However, Labor came surprisingly close to capturing Mississippi, falling short only by a few thousand votes, showing the state's increasing viability for Labor in the years to come. Gubernatorial List as of the 2042 Elections - Map State | Governor | Party | - | - Alabama | Will Ainsworth | CC Mississippi | David James | CC Georgia | Lucy McBath | SL South Carolina | Catherine Templeton | CC North Carolina | John Donalds | SL Florida | Carlos Curbelo | CC Puerto Rico | Alberto Lorienza | SL Virgin Islands | Alice Smith | SL Tennessee | Eric Stuckey | CC Louisiana | Joe Long | SL Social Labor did well in the year's state legislative elections as well, capturing 11 of the country's 20 Legislative chambers; though once again falling short in North Carolina, strong showings downballot allowed for flips along the Gulf Coast region, and Louisiana's first state government will feature unified Labor control. Labor additionally broke out of it's 'lower chamber' problem, grabbing the Puerto Rican, Alabaman and Tennessean Senates for the first time (though they lost a handful of lower houses in the progress). The Conservatives continued to do well in suburban areas; however, Labor's expansion into rural regions has forced the Conservatives to try their hand in some urban metropolises, doing well in a number of North Carolinan cities - contributing to control of the state legislature for the first time. The Virgin Islands Senate continues to befuddle Social Labor, who just can't seem to finish the job and wipe out the last vestige of Conservative power in the state; however, SL only fell short by a seat, and will surely contest the chamber strongly once again in just 3 short years. Map of State Legislatures after the 2042 Elections Dark Blue (Solid CC), Medium Blue (Likely CC), Light Blue (Lean CC), Black (Even), Light Red (Lean SL), Medium Red (Likely SL), Dark Red (Solid SL) Confederate politics are more competitive than ever, more volatile than ever and, compared to the rest of the continent, stronger and more active than ever before. Gone are the days of one-party rule, seismic demographic shifts have shaken both parties to their cores and will shape the coming years of the Confederacy. On one hand, rural areas and especially rural whites have become increasingly receptive to the Social Labor message with the declining importance of social 'wedge issues' in national politics, recalling the days of Democratic party dominance in the 'Solid South;' an increased populist tilt, along with strong and targeted campaigns, have turned Alabama (once the most solidly Republican state in the country) to a near-pure tossup and put states like Mississippi and South Carolina in contention, no longer safely held. Decades of slow partybuilding has given the party a strong 'core' in the Caribbean states and Georgia, who's gigantic metropolis of Atlanta has given Labor a solid cushion of support to start every race, and the party has held young voters well, especially at the statewide level. Labor has begun to make inroads in the brand new Cajun demographic as well, and have proved themselves extremely competent at multi-lingual advertising and campaigning. Gone are the days of a meek, hapless Labor Party; now, the system truly does have a competitive nature. On the other hand, minorities are no longer the solidly liberal force they once were. The Conservatives have taken a sizable bite out of the old Democratic party foundation, namely black voters; older blacks have begun to express increasingly socially conservative views, and the success of the Conservatives on guns and abortion especially have swung a great number of blacks to their side. Suburbs remain the tossup as much as ever; however, older voters have flocked to the party, regardless of race. Young black and latino voters, too, once solidly liberal voters, have seen and appreciated the pro-growth policies of the Conservatives, and consider them their party in increasing numbers. Notably, while Social Labor has gained a populist tilt, much of the teeth of Conservative Populism have been removed; gone are the days of Roy Moore's firebreathing campaigning, and in it's place is a party of relative calm and stability, a party of 'sure hands. ' In all, partisanship plays less of a role in Confederate politics than nearly ever before. Ticket-splitting grows every year; social politics gone from the picture, different people have been 'freed' to pick different parties; more widespread competition has ended the days of notably 'solid' states, minus one or two exceptions. A national popular vote, an end to gerrymandering, two strong parties and increasing political efficacy have created a strong and resilient democratic system, proud of it's freedom of choice and the growth in number of votes cast each election. Voters are engaged, focused on policy and increasingly independent-minded. Moore is the unquestioned Queen of Confederate Politics, and her reign will last at least 18 years - for context, by the time she may run again 2048, there will be first time voters casting ballots for her who were born before the year she was first elected - an entire generation of Southrons growing up with her as the country's only leader, a larger-than-life political figure. However, Moore will be dealing with divided government for the first time, and an increased number of states with oppositional governments. While she hasn't indicated her intentions in 2048, the next 6 years will clearly shape her chances at getting a 4th term, if she even desires one.

Will it come out worldwide i live in canada :S. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full movies.

The times of bill cunningham watch full series. He has a documentary movie and it was the first time I saw him. He really knows style and fashion objectively. His passion is very enticing and captivating. A true artist.

She seems quite game for somebody known to many as nuclear Wintour

Baby or no baby them tricks would be out. Period. The times of bill cunningham watch full version. When Emily Lu tears up there's just no one who will have a voice like Linda' my heart all over. I'm sure i'll cry through this movie. The Times of Bill Cunningham Watch full episodes. The times of bill cunningham watch full online. LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE. Love the one with a splash of yellow. its not even yellow but I can't think of the word 1:15. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4] The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries. Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language. [7] Cats have a high breeding rate. [8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control. [9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations. [10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds, [11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction. [12] Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, [13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9, 500 years ago (7500 BC). [14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East. [13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today. [17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9, 000 years ago. [19][20] As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U. S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish. [21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned. [22] Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3. 1 Anatomy 3. 2 Physiology 3. 2. 1 Nutrition 3. 3 Senses 3. 4 Health 3. 4. 1 Diseases 3. 5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4. 1 Sociability 4. 2 Communication 4. 3 Grooming 4. 4 Fighting 4. 5 Hunting and feeding 4. 6 Running 4. 7 Play 4. 8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5. 1 Habitats 5. 2 Feral cats 5. 3 Impact on prey species 5. 4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6. 1 Cat show 6. 2 Cat café 6. 3 Ailurophobia 6. 4 Cat bites 6. 5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6. 6 History and mythology 6. 6. 1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme). [1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others. [25] The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa. [26][27] Between 70, 000 and 100, 000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats, [28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8, 000 BC in the Middle East. [13][16] The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758. [1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris. [1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus. [1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus, [30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. [31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777, [33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature. [34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat. [35] All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East). [36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain, [37][38] e. g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. lybica. [29][37] Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild. [39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations, [41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat. [42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets. [40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence. [43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness. [40] Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin. [44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests. [29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages. [29] Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial), [45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others. [47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa. [48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t, [49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [... ] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested. "[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'. [50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort. An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. [51][52] A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib, [55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen, [56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire, [57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling. [59] A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats. While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction. [41] Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb). [37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported. [60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb). [61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb). [61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb). [62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average. Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx). [64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. [64]:16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head. [65] Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw. [66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death. [67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. [67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication. [66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection. [68] Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. [69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously. [70] Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws. [71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. [72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. [73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws). [73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America. [74] Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species. [32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F), [66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water. [75] Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38. 6 °C (101. 5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads, [77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night. [79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible. [32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, [80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater. [81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion. [82] Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter. [32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein. [32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates. [83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids. [83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require, [84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies. [85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed. [86] Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit. [87] Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal. [88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine. [89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia. [89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted. Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine, [note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness. [32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats. [91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function. [91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems. [91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina. [91] In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation. [92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin). [93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result. [94] Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process. [92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A). [95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place. [93] Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight. [96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol. [97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus. [97] Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats. [92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats. [92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens. [92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat. [98] Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency. Senses Main article: Cat senses Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. [66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light. [99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils. [100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats. [100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes. [101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green. [102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision. [103] Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79, 000 Hz, a range of 10. 5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves. [104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls. [107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal, [104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. [108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise. [106] Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5. 8 cm2 (0. 90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans. [109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, [110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. [111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion. [112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone. [113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors. [114] Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9, 000 on the human tongue). [115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness. [116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes. [117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing). [115] The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. [66]:47 File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard. [118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. [119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3. 0 ft). Cats without a tail (e. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat. [120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws. [121] Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, [122]:33[123] rising to 9. 4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15. 1 years in 2018. [124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, [125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38. [126] Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females. [122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer. [127] Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats. [128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133] Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas. [134] Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20, 000 genes. [136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors. [137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases. [138][139] Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. [140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times. [142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres). [141] Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming. [143] Sociability Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females. [144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. [34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories. [111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation. [111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone. [146] Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression. [147] Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized. [148] Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother, [149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood, [150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore. [151] Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding. [152] Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing. [7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent. )[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals. [155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head. [145] Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, [156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. [158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling. [159] Grooming The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean. [160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0. 8–1. 2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush. [160] Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. [162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. [163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. [162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. [164] An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting. [154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs. [165] Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. [166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose. [167] Hunting and feeding A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill. A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents, [168] and are often used as a form of pest control. [169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1. 4 to 3. 7 billion birds and 6. 9 to 20. 7 billion mammals annually. [171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts. [171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation. [168] Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals. [146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured. [173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds. [174]:153 Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat. [175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse". Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top. [176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten". [177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens. [174]:153 Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat. [85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past. [146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea. [146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. [180][181] Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8. 8 lb). [182] Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction, [183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards. [184] Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world. [185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat. "), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair. The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running. Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey. [186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals. [187] Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before. [188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry. [189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death. [190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase. [191] Reproduction See also: Kitten When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior. Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days. [192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception. [193] After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat. [192] Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate. [194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers. [192] A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs. [195][196] The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days. [197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed. [192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years. [192] Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, [198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction. [199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months. [200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered. [201] Ecology Habitats A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world. [39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts. "[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands. [203][204] Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. [205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants. [206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments, [29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors. [32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species. [207] As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula. [42] Feral cats Main article: Feral cat Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. [9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million. [9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food. [208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers. [209] Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin. [210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released. [211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced. [208] Impact on prey species Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates. [168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial. [213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction. [206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals. [214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators. [215] In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals. [216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats. [217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals. [218] Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available). [219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2, 000 per square kilometre (5, 200/sq mi). [219] In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control. [221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations. [223] Impact on birds A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64. 8 million bird deaths each year. [168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States. [224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat. [225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation. [226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety. [227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis. On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet. [228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail, [226] the New Zealand merganser, [230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery. [232][233] Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods. [234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics. [235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat. [236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting, [234] have also contributed to their susceptibility. Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. [13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, [238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat. [239] As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat). [243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union. [244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft, [245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism. [246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet, [248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million. [250][251][252][253][254][255] Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard. [256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard, [258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded. Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with. [259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental. Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats. [260] Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop. [261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection. [262][261] Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans. [263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease, [264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body. [263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. [264] History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people. [266] Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3, 600 years old. [29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9, 500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly. [16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt. [15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5, 300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans. [269] In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness. [270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows. [266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis, [266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories. [266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians. [271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats. [272]:57–58[273] Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats. [273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers. [273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail", [272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice". [273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature, [273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous. "[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis. [272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat. [272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice. [274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary. [274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten. [274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms. [270]:223 Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune. [275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats. [276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice. [277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals. [277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water. [277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza. [278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it". [279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad. [280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats. [281] Superstitions and cat burning Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade). [282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized". [283] "It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire. "[284] According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, [285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six. [287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall. [288] See also Book: Cat icon Cats portal icon Mammals portal Aging in cats Animal testing on cats Animal track Cancer in cats Cat and mouse (cat-and-mouse game) Cat burning Cat intelligence Cat lady Cats and the Internet Dog–cat relationship Dried cat List of cat breeds List of cat documentaries List of cats List of fictional cats and felines Pet door including cat flap Pet first aid Popular cat names Trap-neuter-return Cats by location Cats in ancient Egypt Cats in Australia Cats in New Zealand Cats in the United States Notes Taurine is sometimes called an amino acid, and indeed is an acid containing an amino group, it is not an amino acid in the usual biochemical meaning of the term, which refers to compounds containing both an amino and a carboxyl group. [90] References Wozencraft, W. (2005). "Species Felis catus". In Wilson, D. E. ; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed. ). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 534–535. 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